Im guessing that the way this would impact the outcome is a lost disc from the tee. The player could not make another throw, thus being disqualified. An OB disc being retrieved and thrown again on the next shot is not allowed by rule. This would result in 1 penalty for OB, 1 for retrieving the disc and 1 more if the player is called for excessive time. Did I leave anything out here?
I see a possible issue with your interpretation: As I read it, 803.04H specifically refers to a "re-throw" that follows a stance violation. IMHO, throwing from the (new) lie marked for a OB disc is not a "re-throw", it is a subsequent throw.
I think it very well does affect the hole which in turn affects the outcome of the round. You have a tough hole with a water hazard, you throw your beat up valk because it turns just right for the hole. It talks a swim and you wana go get it cause you need to rethrow, either from the pad again or from the designated spot. If i'm your opponent, i say no dice to going get it! There is a rule that addresses this. Regardless of the reason for the rule you can't deny it plays a part in the outcome of scoring. Now he has to throw another disc that he may not be used to using for this hole. the better skilled player can make another disc in his bag work. If he/she can't, the scoring will show it. I run across the same problems playing basketball, some people try to leave out whatever rules they think aren't needed. There are there for a reason and are what make the sport, any sport.
By rule you cannot play with just one disc. You have to have a disc and mini marker disc to mark your lie. So granted he had a mini. The player can elect to re-tee or the disc can be marked where it crossed the OB line with the marker and thrown again from the spot.
802.02 Mini Marker Discs
A. Mini marker discs shall be used to mark a player's lie as
required by these rules. Mini marker discs must have a diameter of between 7
and 15 centimeters and a height not exceeding 3 centimeters.
That is why I said earlier that one could retreive the disc with an extra bonus stroke. However, if I am in a tourney I have to agree with the Bigg Hamm and say no way you are going to get it. However, if the person has one disc for whatever stoopid reason then I would say ok. But still the person is an idiot.
The rules allow for a reasonable amount of time to mark your disc. You can wait until everyone has thrown, determine the OB status and mark your disc and then make the call of where to play from. You have 30 seconds each time you make a throw to complete that throw. You don't have run and complete your next shot withinbg the same 30 seconds as your first.
B. A player whose disc is considered out-of-bounds shall receive one penalty throw. The player may elect to play the next shot from:
(1) The previous lie as evidenced by the marker disc or, if the marker disc has been moved from an approximate lie, as agreed to by the majority of the group or an official; or (2) A lie that is up to one meter away from and perpendicular to the point where the disc last crossed into out-of-bounds, as determined by a majority of the group or an official. This holds true even if the direction takes the
lie closer to the hole; or (3) Within the designated Drop Zone, if provided. These options may be limited by the tournament director as a special condition (see 804.01).
When a stance violation occurs and is valid you cannot retrieve the thrown disc until after you re-throw. It has nothing to do with O.B. and everything to do with avoiding allowing a waste of time
F. A stance violation must be clearly called within three seconds after the infraction to be
valid. The call may be made by any member of the group or an official. When the call is made by
a member of the group, it must subsequently be confirmed by another member of the group. A
player shall receive a warning for the first violation of a stance rule in the round.
Subsequent violations of a stance rule in the same round shall incur a one-throw penalty.
G. Any throw that involves a validly called and seconded stance violation may not be used by the thrower. Re-throws must be taken from the original lie, prior to subsequent play by others in the group.
H. The player may not retrieve the originally thrown disc prior to the re-throw, except in the
case of a putt from within 10 meters. Where a disc is retrieved in violation of this rule, a
one throw penalty shall be imposed without a warning.